All Sudanese Political Parties Conference
Juba September 26th – 29th 2009
Foreign Relations and Policy Guidelines Committee.
Cognizant of the fact that a standard and wise foreign policy is a reflection of visionary, democratic and progressive internal policies of a country. As such foreign policies should have direct relations with the said country’s socio-cultural, political, economical, regional and geographical diversity;
Affirming that a foreign policy plays an interlocutor and an official outlet between any country such as Sudan and other parts of the world; it is foremost one of the means and channels through which a country can achieve its stability along political, economic, peace and security and cultural harmonization and fulfillment. Thence, it is essential to put visionary and genuine principles to guide the foreign policies for the Sudan that shall promote the diverse national interests of the Sudan of democracy, peace, justice, equitable socio-economic and political development and good governance;
Adhering to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and in conformity with the Interim National Constitution which provide among other things for either of the two options: The voluntary choice of an attractive unity of the Sudan or the independence of Southern Sudan and Abeyi respectively and timely in 2011 through the exercise of the universally acclaimed right to self-determination;
Further adhering to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement provision on the Popular Consultations of Southern Kordofan and Southern Blue Nile respectively and timely in 2011;
Admitting that the Sudan through consecutive governments since its independence in 1956 has committed injustices against a large section of its population leading to severe conflict with itself for more than 30 years, and has failed to resolve the Sudanese Conflict on its own;
Acknowledging that, ultimately it is the sovereignty of any country that guarantees it the right to independently manage its affairs including peace and security, equality, justice and equitable development within its national jurisdiction, internal affairs and politics;
Aware of the increasing role(s) of external diplomatic and peaceful mediation efforts in resolving national conflicts such as Sudan’s. Additionally, the increasing emergence of regional and international intervention diplomatic, peace mediation and arbitration mechanisms and processes that ensure global security and development according to the concept of responsibility to protect;
Highly appreciative of the noble role played by regional, foreign relations and efforts; this was manifested in the historical role played by IGAD countries namely Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti and other neighbouring countries such as Egypt and Libya including the International community through the International Partners’ Forum (IPF) namely the United States of America, Norway, the United Kingdom, Italy and the Netherlands;
Recalling that the Dar Fur Conflict remains a dark and painful tragic conflict in the Sudan today despite the CPA and its national constitutional framework, it must be resolved according to the demands of the Dar Furian people. We call for the amicable resolution of the Dar Fur Conflict immediately and the inclusive participation of all its liberation groups, civil society and the facilitation of the regional and international community before the end of 2009;
Aware that there cannot be a lasting, just peace and democracy for the whole Sudan unless the Dar Fur and other conflicts and incited incidences of insecurities in the South;
Gravely concerned however by the lack of the political will to fully endorse a just peace and genuinely implement the CPA; manifested in the slow pace of the implementation of the CPA provisions and other peace agreements;
Alarmed by the fact that there remains less than two years of the CPA expiration date in 2011 and what shall unfold thereafter and;
Inviting the regional and international community to support in resolving all the above critical issues; we hereby therefore make the following immediate and urgent observations and recommendations:
The Current Situation:
The Sudan current internal undemocratic authoritarian national regime policies have tainted Sudan’s foreign policies which currently do not reflect national interests including peace and security, socio-economic and political instability. Furthermore, the current foreign policy contradicts international human rights, conventions and foreign relations norms.
Moreover, the Sudan external relations have been negatively affected by undemocratic, non-respectful of international norms, values, practices and in-consistent decision making reflected in its foreign policies. These policies resulted to the isolation of the Sudan from the rest of the world, interference with regional political, socio-economic, security instability through the sponsoring of internal conflicts spilling over into neighbouring Horn and East Africa region countries.
In order for Sudan to join the international community and work for the interest of the Sudan, the full implementation of the CPA and democratic change, the conferees agreed on the following:
1. Guidelines for the External Relations
- A diplomatically balanced and wise and strategic external relations.
- Referring to the CPA, we recommend that the choice of unity of the Sudan must be based on a new political dispensation that integrally incorporates the dynamic diversity of its nationalities, ethnic, religious, faiths, regional and the cultural composition of the Country. This should be fully reflected and implemented and in good faith in all national socio-economic and legal processes and fully protected.
- Mobilize the regional and international community in accelerating for the full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement including the Right to self-determination Referendum especially the guarantees on the census results and the Popular Consultations for Southern Kordofan and Southern Blue Nile and on time. Furthermore, ensuring the guarantees for free and fair elections to achieve democratic transformation and good governance.
- Support for the free and voluntary choice of a sincere unity of the Sudan and or independence of the South and Abeyi per the CPA.
- We emphatically recommend that the Referendum law must be passed by the National Assembly before the end of 2009. Furthermore, we strongly recommend the unhindered and timely implementation of the Right to self-determination through the free will of the people of the South and a conducive environment for the conduction of the Referendum in Southern Sudan and Abeyi respectively.
- The Sudan must fully commit itself to good relations with the neighbors and support/initiate regional cooperation along all related levels such as peace and security, economic and political stability.
- Achievement and contribution towards regional and international peace and security.
- The need for Sudan to commit itself for economic cooperation that shall ensure equitable development, the diversification of natural resources utilization and shall promote and protect future generations and the environment.
- The need to cooperate and build good diplomacy with the regional community to end war/conflicts along the borders and improve relationships with Uganda and DRC (the LRA factor) and Chad and Libyia (Dar Fur conflict) through diplomatic and security regional conferences in which all the neighbors will take part with participation as international observers.
- The Sudan being part of the regional and the international community, it should respect, abide and contribute towards the adherence to international protocols, conventions and human rights including women’s rights.
- The Sudan must cooperate with the regional and international community and contribute towards the achievement of a new world order based on mutual respect, genuine partnership, basic freedoms, justice and peace between the developed and the developing world.
2. Urgent and Important issues that need the regional and the international community attention:
- A. Elections
A wider national, regional and international consultative processes to be initiated immediately and supported by the regional and international community to achieve free and fair elections as per the resolutions of the Juba Political Parties Conference.
The International community should condition its participation in Sudan’s 2010 elections unless legal reforms, democratic practices and conditions for free and fair elections are fulfilled before end 2009. There must be regional and international elections observers to monitor and ensure free and fair elections in the Sudan.
- B. The Right to Self-determination
The immediate and consistent commitment to the passing of the Referendum Laws before the end of 2009 so that the people of Southern Sudan and Abeyi shall freely exercise the Right to self-determination and on time as stipulated in the CPA, this should be guaranteed, monitored and observed by the regional and the international community.
The full support of the timely conduction of the right to self-determination Referendum and the respect and facilitation of its Outcome by the regional and international community.
In the case the of Southern Sudanese choosing separation, the two sister countries should commit to the principles of good neighbors, cooperation along bilateral and regional economic, security and cultural arrangements.
- Cooperate with the international community to achieve a just and comprehensive peace in Dar Fur, through a common Sudanese vision shared by all stakeholders in Dar Fur.
- Strive to achieve security and regional cooperation with neighbouring countries and end the wars across the borders and reach a settlement with our neigbourly and sisterly Chad by convening a regional security conference with the participation of Sudan’s neighbours and with the attendance and observance of the international community.
- Commitment to all UN Security Resolutions on Dar Fur for finding a way provide justice and settlement.
- Mobilize the international community to support rehabilitation and development projects in Dar Fur.
3. Bilateral and Multilateral Relations
All relations shall be built on the provisions of this document:
African countries: Working on developing Sudan’s relations with African countries so that these relations are built on common interests. This shall be done with special emphasis on IGAD countries.
Arab countries: Working on developing Sudan’s relations with Arab countries so that these relations are built on common interests. This shall be done with special emphasis on neighbouring countries (Egypt, Libya and Gulf states).
Asian countries: Working on developing Sudan’s relations with Asian countries so that these relations are built on common interests.
The United States of America and Europe: The USA and European countries are the major contributors to peace keeping and humanitarian operations and support in the Sudan. They are also the principal guarantors of the CPA. In addition to the fact that both the USA and Europe are in possession of huge and technological resources and enjoy established good governance. All these factors neccessiate attraction of these countries to help in strengthening good governance in the Sudan and raising its civil society’s abilities as well as investing with the Sudan in various economic and development fields.
Political parties and civil society alliance building: Outreaching and establishing relations with all like-minded political parties and civil society groups that share the same principles as per this document.
4. The way-forward:
Dissemination of Juba’s Conference Resolutions within one week to all foreign missions and NGOs in the Country as per the following priorities:
i. Members of the Assessment and Evaluation Commission.
ii. IGAD countries, neighbouring countries, Gulf states, permenant and rotational members of the United Nations Security Council.
iii. International organizations: EU, AU, Arab League of States, all organizations of which the sudan is a member and all UN missions in the Sudan.
iv. South Africa and Nigeria.
5. Development, Economic and Investment External Relations
- The foreign policies should be conducive, friendly and acceptable such that countries, international monetary and financial institutions to which Sudan are indebted to can cancel some of Sudan’s national debts.
- The need for Sudan to establish reformed and sound, accountable and transparent financial and good governance reforms to improve relations with the international organizations (IMF, World Bank and other investment cooperation) to reach a consensus reaching an agreement for such debt cancellations and to provide for these international financial bodies to offer chances for new sources of finances and investment opportunities.
- The Sudan new proposed foreign policies shall include sound and attractive investment, development and technology-friendly promotion programmes and opportunities to encourage international ethical, good investment practices that shall promote a vibrant and viable strong local economy and corresponding institutions.
- These policies shall promote and protect future generations and the environment.